Long-term strategies: state of play, challenges and possible support through the G20

This paper provides an overview of the process of developing an LTS, based on experience across the world.

Long-term (climate) Strategies (LTSs) stand out from other government strategies, as they provide a vision of the national economy far into the future and encompass an unusually broad spectrum of policy areas. Ideally, LTSs and their underlying technical models present a clear trajectory to inform near- and mid-term policy making in each of the relevant sectors, engage relevant actors and translate international obligations into the national context. They can also guide a country when setting priorities in international cooperation.

Preparing and implementing an LTS does not come without its challenges. To establish a long-term vision, input from a variety of stakeholders is needed and expertise with highly complex models is required to elaborate and analyze scenarios and their underlying emission pathways. Furthermore, for an LTS to be effective, it must be in line with other governmental priorities and strategies and embedded in the respective governance system. This necessitates the creation of dedicated institutional structures that facilitate coordination in all stages of LTS development and follow-up.

This paper provides an overview of the process and challenges of developing an LTS, based on experience across the world as documented in literature as of mid-2022. It also looks at what support exists for countries undergoing this process and presents some ideas how the G20 could raise the political profile of the strategies and assist in their development and implementation.

Literature covering national experiences with LTSs is scarce; only a few publications provide a comparative overview of LTSs and their development processes. Hence, to supplement the research, we added the insights of a workshop conducted in July 2022 with relevant experts from NGOs and governmental agencies, organised as part of the Climate Recon 2050 project in collaboration with Think20, an outreach platform for G20 to think tanks. This input is cited as “CR Workshop 2022”.


Haase, Isabel; Duwe, Matthias (2022): Long-term strategies in a G20 context. Ecologic Institute, Berlin.

Isabel Haase
Matthias Duwe
(Ecologic institute)
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